We developed a conceptual framework to illustrate national priorities for future research to reduce the risk of primary breast cancer in women (see Figure 4). According to stakeholders, the highest priority research areas for the prevention of breast cancer are:
Population—understanding which populations are at highest risk of breast cancer, most likely to experience benefit, and least likely to be harmed by therapy (Question A).
Intervention—broadening the scope on interventions (beyond medications) and comparative effectiveness research to include factors such as lifestyle, diet and exercise (Question B).
Influencing factors—understanding influences such as health system factors, communication, education, dissemination of high quality information into clinical practice and to patients, and decisionmaking on initiation, continuation, and responses of preventive therapies (Question C).
Integration of biological markers across the spectrum of research relating to breast cancer, understanding populations that are most likely to benefit from therapy, and monitoring response to therapy (integrated in Questions A, B, and C).
For two of these high-priority topics—intervention (Question B) and influencing factors (Question C)—an evidence review could help inform and guide research in these areas, and preliminary searches indicate there is likely to be a sufficient literature.
In general, we found that the traditional analytic framework used to structure reviews does not adequately address future research needs. However, with some adjustments to highlight major areas for research and the addition of biological and influencing factors, we were able to develop a conceptual framework to illustrate national priorities for future research.
Secondarily, we learned important lessons regarding stakeholder engagement. For various reasons, not all stakeholders will be able or willing to participate in a future research needs investigation. Having a list of multiple stakeholders for each stakeholder category is important to ensure sufficient numbers of responses in each category. Other important approaches to successful stakeholder recruitment and engagement include: making personal connections with stakeholders, stakeholders acting as advocates and recruiters for the project contacting potential stakeholders through multiple venues, and being persistent in outreach, referral requests, and followup.
Due to time constraints, we were unable to follow up with stakeholders to verify summary results. During the public posting of the report, we plan to verify results with stakeholders and consider other public comments for revision of this white paper. The results presented are the high-priority areas for research captured from responses in questionnaires similar to the Institute of Medicine CER priority list,333 and they require further development to be actionable research protocols. While questionnaires are effective methods to equitably represent priorities, they are not an optimal format for the creative process of research study design and development. In-person discussions through meetings, focus groups, and panels where conversations and options could be explored and developed are more conducive to study design and protocol development. The information from this report, particularly the conceptual framework and Table 7 (Future Research Agenda for Breast Cancer Prevention) provides a solid foundation for such discussions to expand and detail the specific research needs to advance this field of study.
The best approach to writing a research paper on breast cancer
When writing a research paper, it is important to first plan accordingly for the research. The planning phase involves the following key activities;
- Understand the research topic.
Read widely and consult experts in the field the essay topic is related to. Proceeding with the writing process before understanding the topic leads to poor essays that have no clear research questions and objectives.
- Define all important elements of the topic.
A researcher should seek formal definitions of words that make up the topic. The definitions should be in the context of the topic of research. For example the research paper on breast cancer defines breast cancer as a type of cancer that develops from breast tissue. This definition ensures the research is limited to breast cancer and does not deviate to other forms of cancer.
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Research paper on breast cancer
Breast cancer refers to a cancer that develops within the breast tissues. Some well known symptoms of breast cancer are;
- Fluid discharge from the nipple.
- A lump in the breast
- Red discoloration of the skin
Breast cancer has been linked to certain specific risk factors namely;
- Inactivity and lack of exercise
- Consumption of alcohol
- Family history
To diagnose breast cancer, a biopsy examination of the lump is carried out. This is followed by tests to determine the extent the cancer has spread in the body. Breast cancer is the leading cancer affecting women worldwide. As with other forms of cancer, early detection is important to increase the survival rate. Recent scientific research has indicated lifestyle choices as having a significant impact in increasing the risk of breast cancer. Habits such as smoking and high consumption of alcohol have been shown to increase the likelihood of developing breast cancer. Dietary choices such as consumption of highly processed foods also increase breast cancer risk. High cholesterol levels associated with obesity has also been identified as a risk factor in the development of breast cancer. Genetics and family history do also play a part in increasing the risk of developing breast cancer. Studies have shown that breast cancer can run within a family. The prevention of breast cancer targets changing people’s lifestyles to manage avoidable risk factors. These lifestyle changes involve reduction of indulgence in bad habits. For example a positive lifestyle change involves reducing the consumption of alcohol and quitting smoking. Exercising is also an important activity that should be incorporated into people’s lifestyles. Medical practitioners are also encouraging individuals to conduct periodic or annual checkups to ensure any cases of breast cancer are identified early.
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