The Harvard (author-date) system is made up of two parts:
- an in-text citation and a
- bibliographyat the end of the document.
In a piece of research, ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in rounded brackets (e.g. Apple 2013). The bibliography at the end of the document then lists the references in alphabetical order by authorss surnames.
This guide provides instructions and over 130 examples using Harvard referencing. To find a variety of types of sources, you can use the A-Z on each page or the full page listing which includes links to all examples.
Important: There are many variations of the Harvard style. Be sure to match the Harvard style that best fits the style recommended in your course handbook. Always ask your tutor which referencing style s/he wants you to use in your academic work.
Tip! Be consistent in the referencing style you use.
More referencing information can be found in the following LibGuides:
You can also find guides for the following referencing tools:
What should be included:
In-text citation should containthe author (if known) OR title and date of production. Also, when referencing a quote or comment from a film, video, DVD, YouTube and television program, refer to the person by name within your paper and give the title and year of broadcast either in parentheses or as part of your sentence.
....the famous architect, Frank Gehry, commented … (The 7.30 Report 2011).
The Reference list should contain the author (if known), title, date of recording, format, publisher and place of recording. Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.
For further information refer to Snooks p. 229 & 231 at 808.027 S938)
(Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011)
Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011, motion picture, British Film Institute, London.
(Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010)
Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, video recording, Madman Entertainment, Australia. Directed by Jan Kounen.
(About Jenny Holzer 2011) or .......as portrayed in About Jenny Holzer(2011)
About Jenny Holzer 2011, dvd, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.
…ever-present question about art is how it impacts on us (Gough 2017).
In the video What makes art good or bad? by RMIT professor Paul Gough (2017) the question is explored….
Gough, P 2017, What makes art good or bad?, video recording, YouTube, viewed 17 July 2017,
Note: Use pointed brackets around <URL> with full-stop after bracket.
…documentaries like (Robert Rauschenberg 1997) provide good example of fusing real art and life
Robert Rauschenberg: man at work 1997, streaming video, Arthaus Musik, viewed 13 September 2016, Kanopy database.
(Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art 2010)
Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art 2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 4 October.