Teaching Learner Autonomy Bibliography

A

A. Ciekanski, Maud & B. Tassinari, Maria Giovanna (2015). Emotions and feelings in language advising. In A. A.-P. Krings & B. B. Kuehn (Eds.), Fremdsprachliche lernprozesse. ertraege des 4. bremer symposions zum lehren und lernen von fremdsprachen (118-132). Bochum: AKS.

A. Martos, Javier & B. Tassinari, Maria Giovanna (2016). Einleitung in den thematischen Teil. Jahrbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Intercultural German Studies, 40, 105-116.

A. Martos, Javier & B. Tassinari, Maria Giovanna (Eds.) (2016). Autonomes Fremdsprachenlernen an der Hochschule: Ansätze, Rollen, Erfahrungen. Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Intercultural German Studies, (40). Iudicium Verlag.

A. Tassinari, Maria Giovanna & B. Ciekanski, Maud (2013). Accessing the self in self-access learning: Emotions and feelings in language advising. Studies in Self-access Learning Journal, 4(4), 262-280.
http://sisaljournal.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/tassinari_ciekanski1.pdf

Aagård, R. & St. John, O. (2003). Home and horizon. In K. van Esch & O. St. John (Eds.), A framework for freedom: Learner autonomy in foreign language teacher education (107-128). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Aagård, R. & St. John, O. (2003). Learner autonomy in speaking skills development. In K. van Esch and O. St. John (Eds.), A framework for freedom: Learner autonomy in foreign language teacher education (107-128). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Aagård, R., Deeg, H. & Jover, G. (2003). Learner autonomy in developing writing skills. In K. van Esch and O. St. John (Eds.), A framework for freedom: Learner autonomy in foreign language teacher education (208-228). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Aase, L. (2003). Cultural competence: a basis for participation in society. In D. Little et al (Ed.), Learner autonomy in foreign language classrooms: Teacher, learner, curriculum and assessment (185-197). Dublin: Authentik.

Abdel Razeq, A. A. (2014). University EFL learners’ perceptions of their autonomous learning responsibilities and abilities. RELC Journal, 45(3), 321-336.

Abe, E. (2003). Changing attitudes: Fluency-focused speaking practice. In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy you ask!. Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.
http://www.miyazaki-mu.ac.jp/%7Ehnicoll/learnerdev/aya/AyaTOC.html

Abercrombie, M. L. J. (1981). Changing basic assumptions about teaching and learning. In D. Boud (Ed.), Developing student autonomy in learning (5th ed.) (pp. 38-54). London: Kogan Page.

Abraham, R. & Vann, R. (1987). Strategies of two language learners: A case study. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. London: Prentice Hall.

Abrams, Z. I. (2001). Computer-mediated communication and group journals: Expanding the repertoire of participant roles. System, 29(4), 489-503.

Abé, D. (1994). Implementing a support system for language learning in a resource centre on an industrial site. In E. Esch (Ed.), Self-access and the adult language learner (108-116). London: CILT.

Abé, D. (1995). Organiser l’apprendre en milieu industriel: le centre de ressources de l’entreprise. Mélanges Pédagogiques, 22.

Abé, D. & Gremmo M. J. (1981). Apprentissage auto-dirigé : quand les chiffres parlent. Mélanges Pédagogiques 12. Université de Nancy 2: CRAPEL.

Abé, D., Carton, M., Cembalo, S. M. & Régent, O. (1979). Didactique et authentique : du document à la pédagogie. Mélanges Pédagogiques 10. Université de Nancy 2: CRAPEL.

Abé, D., et al. (1985). Aspects of autonomous learning. In P. Riley (Ed.), Discourse and learning (248-282). London: Longman.

Abé, D., Henner-Stanchina, C. & Régent, O. (1978). Apprentissage de l’expression orale en autonomie : Implications de l’approche fonctionnelle’ Mélanges Pédagogiques 9. Université de Nancy 2: CRAPEL.

Abé, D., Henner-Stanchina, C. & Smith, P. (1975). New approaches to autonomy: Two experiments in self-directed learning‘. Mélanges Pédagogiques. Université de Nancy 2: CRAPEL.

Adams, J. (2003). Diversity and the place of foreign language learning on the school curriculum. In M. Jiménez Raya & T. Lamb (Eds.), Differentiation in the modern languages classroom. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Ager, D., Clavering, E. & Galleymore, J. (1980). Assisted self-tutoring in foreign languages at Aston. Recherches et Echanges, 5(1), 16-29.

Agustín-Llach, M. P., & Alonso, A. C. (2017). Fostering learner autonomy through vocabulary strategy training. In P. Mirosław, A. Mystkowska-Wiertelak & J. Bielak (Eds.), Autonomy in second language learning: Managing the resources (141-158). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Al Asmari, A. (2013). Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers’ Perceptions. English Language Teaching, 6(3), 1-10.

Al Asmari, A. (2013). Practices and prospects of learner autonomy: Teachers’ perceptions. English Language Teaching, 6(3), 1-10.

Alanen, R. (2003). A sociocultural approach to young language learners beliefs about language learning. In P. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (55-86). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Albero, B. (2001). Les “Espaces Langues”: Un potential d’évolutions des pratiques d’enseignement et de pratiques d’apprentissage. Les Langues Modernes, 2, 76-84.

Albero, B. (2003). Autoformation et enseignement supérieur. Paris: Hermès.

Aldred, D. (1995). Introducing self-access to Hong Kong teenagers: the IELP experience. Independence, 12.

Aldred, D. & Williams, G. (2000). The need for a focused approach: A case study. Links & Letters, 7 (Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona).

Aliponga, J., Gamble, C., & Ando, S. (2011). Verbalization plus automatization plus autonomy: A simple formula for learner autonomy. In D. Gardner (Ed.), Fostering autonomy in language learning (90-98). Gaziantep: Zirve University.

Allan, M. (1997). Assisting autonomous performance. Prospect, 12(3), 4-14.

Allen, L. (1996). The evolution of a learner’s beliefs about language learning. Carleton Papers in Applied Linguistics, 13, 67-80.

Allen, R. (2009). The theory and practice of the materials development process for the Self Access Learning Centre: The past, present & future. The Journal of Kanda University of International Studies, 21, 209-232.

Allen, R. T. (1992). The education of autonomous man. Aldershot: Avebury.

Allensworth, E. M., Easton, J. Q., & Consortium on Chicago School Research (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago public high schools: A close look at course grades, failures, and attendance in the freshman year. Research Report. Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Allwright, D. (1990). Autonomy in language pedagogy. CRILE working paper 6. Centre for Research in Language Education: University of Lancaster.

Allwright, R. L. (1979). Abdication and responsibility in language teaching. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2, 105-121.

Allwright, R. L. (1982). Perceiving an pursuing learners’ needs. In M. Geddes & G. Sturtridge (Eds.), Individualisation (24-31). London: Modern English Publications.

Allwright, R. L. (1984). Why don’t learners learn what teachers teach? The interaction hypothesis. In D. M. S. Singleton & D. G. Little (Eds.), Language learning in formal and informal contexts (3-18). Dublin: Irish Association for Applied Linguistics.

Allwright, R. L. (1988). Autonomy and individualization in whole-class instruction. In A. Brookes & P. Grundy (Eds.), Individualization and autonomy in language learning (35-44). ELT Documents, 131. London: Modern English Publications and the British Council.

Alm, A. (2013). Extensive listening 2.0 with foreign language podcasts. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 266-280.

Altman, H. B. (1972). Individualizing the foreign language classrooms. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.

Altman, H. B. & James, C. V. (1980). Foreign language teaching: Meeting individual needs. Oxford: Pergamon.

Altman, H. B. & Politzer, R. (1971). Individualizing foreign language instruction. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.

Altshul, L. A. (2001). Advising by email. In M. Mozzon-McPherson & R. Vismans (Eds.), Beyond language teaching: Towards language advising (16-170). London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

Amaro, J. (2002). Negotiating evaluation in the classroom. In F. Vieira, M. A. Moreira, I. Barbosa & M. Paiva (Eds.), Pedagogy for autonomy and English learning: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the working group – Pedagogy for autonomy. Braga: University of Minho.

Anantasate, B. (2001). The development of a teaching and learning process to promote learners’ autonomy for university students. unpublished doctoral thesis. Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University.

Anderson, H. , Reinders, H. & Jones-Parry, J. (2004). Self-access: Positioning, pedagogy and direction. Prospect, 19(3), 15-26.

Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 460-472.

Anderson, N. J. (2008). Metacognition and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (99-109). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aoki, N. (1999). Affect and the role of teacher in the development of learner autonomy. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in language learning (pp.142-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aoki, N. (2001). Kyooshi no yakuwari (Teacher’s roles). In N. Aoki, A. Ozaki & S. Toki (Eds.), Nihongo Kyooikugaku o Manabu Hito no tame ni (For students of JSL pedagogy) (pp.184-199), Kyoto: Sekaishisoosha.

Aoki, N. (1998). Examining definitions of learner autonomy. Osaka University Japanese Language Research, 10.

Aoki, N. (2001). The institutional and psychological context of learner autonomy. The AILA Review, 15, 82-90.

Aoki, N. (2002). Aspects of teacher autonomy: capacity, freedom, and responsibility. In P. Benson & S. Toogood (Eds.), Learner autonomy 7: Challenges to research and practice (110-124). Dublin: Authentik.

Aoki, N. (2002). Teachers’ conversation with partial autobiographies. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 152-168.

Aoki, N. (2003). Expanding space for reflection and collaboration. In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy you ask!. Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.

Aoki, N. & Hamakawa, Y. (2003). Asserting our culture: Teacher autonomy from a feminist perspective. In D. Palfreyman & R. C. Smith (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives (240-253). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Aoki, N. & Smith, R.C. (1999). Learner autonomy in cultural context: The case of Japan. In S. Cotterall & D. Crabbe (Eds.), Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change (19-28). Bayreuth Contributions to Glottodidactics, Vol 8. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Apple, M. & Beane J. (1999). Democratic schools. Buckingham, U.K: Open University Press.

AQF (2011). Australian Qualifications Framework. Adelaide: Australian Qualifications Framework Advisory Board.

Areglado, R. J. (1996). Learning for Life: Creating Classrooms for Self-Directed Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Armanet, C. M. & Obese-Jecty, K. (1984). Autonomy and the teaching of English at the University of Technology of Compeigne. IRAL, 22(4), 130-136.

Arthur, L. & Hurd, S. (2001). Supporting lifelong language learning. Theoretical and practical approaches. London: CILT.

Artino Jr, A. R. (2005). Review of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 0.

Artino, A. R., & Stephens, J. M. (2007). Motivation and self-regulation in online courses: A comparative analysis of undergraduate and graduate students. In annual meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Anaheim, CA:

Aspin, D. (1997). Autonomy education and the formation of democratic relationships between ‘experts’ and ‘ordinary’ citizens. In D. Bridges, Education, autonomy and democracy citizenship (pp. 248-260). London: Routledge.

Assinder, W. (1991). Peer-teaching, peer-learning: one model. ELT Journal, 45(3), 218-229.

Aston, G. (1993). The learner’s contribution to the self-access centre. ELT Journal, 47(3), 219-227.

Aston, G. (1997). Involving learners in developing learning methods: exploiting text corpora in self-access. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independence in language learning (204-214). London: Longman.

Atherton, B. (1980). Adapting spaces for resource-based learning. London: Centre for Educational Technology.

Atkins, K. (2005). Self and subjectivity. Oxford: Blackwell.

Attwell, G. (2007). Personal learning environments – The future of eLearing? eLearning Papers, 2(1), 1-8.
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Auerbach, E. R. (1995). The politics of the ESL classroom: issues of power in pedagogical choices. In J. W. Tollefson (Ed.), Power and inequality in language education (pp. 9-33). Cambridge University Press.

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http://www.finchpark.com/arts/autonomy/
Autonomy: Where are we? Where are we going?’. In A. S. Mackenzie & E. McCafferty (Eds.), Developing autonomy (pp. 15-42). Proceedings of the JALT CUE Conference 2001. Tokyo: The Japan Association for Language Teaching College and University Educators Special Interest Group.

Azimi Mohamad Abadi, E., & Baradaran, A (2013). The relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency level. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 2(3), 176-185.

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Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (1982). The construct validation of some components of communicative proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 449-465.

Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (1989). The construct validation of self-ratings of communicative language ability. Language Testing, 6, 14-29.

Bagheri, M. S., & Aeen, L. (2011). The impact of practicing autonomy on the writing proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 1-13.

Bagnall, R. G. (1987). Enhancing self-direction in adult education: a possible trap for enthusiasts. Discourse: the Australian Journal of Educational Studies, 8(1), 90-100.

Bailly, S. (1995). La formation de conseiller. Mélanges Pédagogiques, 22. Université de Nancy 2: CRAPEL.

Bailly, S. (2011). Teenagers learning language out of school: What, why and how do they learn? How can school help them? In P. Bens on & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (119-131). New Yo rk: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bailly, S. & Ciekanski, M. (2006). Learning as Identity in Practice: the Role of the Learner-Advisor Relationship in Supported Self-directed Learning Structure. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Supporting independent learning: Issues and interventions. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Bailly, S. & Petitdemange, G. (1990). Construire son apprentissage: Compte-rendu d’une expérience d’auto-apprentissage avec soutien en anglais pour des étudiants en architecture. Mélanges Pédagogiques, 20, 9-18.

Bailly, S., Gremmo, M. J. & Riley, P. (2002). Guide à l’usage des apprenants adultes. In J. Trim (Ed.), Cadre Européen commun de référence pour les langues: Apprendre, enseigner, évaluer (55-82). Strasbourg: Conseil de l’Europe.

Bakar, N. A. (2007). Technology and learner autonomy: Teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards learner autonomy in a computer-based learning environment in a Malaysian context. Pape presented at the Independent Learning Association 2007 Japan Conference: Exploring Theory, Enhancing Practice. Chiba, Japan:

Balcikanli, C. (2008). Fostering learner autonomy in EFL classrooms. Kastamonu Education Journal, 16(1), 277-284.

Balcikanli, C. (2010). The effects of social networking on pre-service English teachers’ metacognitive awareness and teaching practice. unpublished PhD dissertation. Ankara: Gazi University.

Balcikanli, C. (2010). Learner autonomy in language learning: Student teachers’ beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 90-103.

Bamberg, B. (1992). Autonomy and accommodation – striking a balance – Freshman writing in English at USC. ADE Bulletin, 101, 19-22.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The excercise of control. New York, N. Y.: W. H. Freeman.

Bandy, T., & Moore, K. A. (2010). Assessing self-regulation: A guide for out-of-school time program practitioners. Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Bankowski, E. (1999). Promoting learner autonomy through project work in EAP. Hong Kong Baptist University Papers in Applied Language Studies, 4, 64-79.

Bankowski, E. (1999). Training students in learning strategies for small scale independent research tasks. In V. Crew, V. Berry & J. Hung (Eds.), Exploring diversity in the language curriculum (199-216). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education.

Bankowski, E. (2001). Developing effective strategies for independent learning: Handling research tasks in English for academic purposes. In D. K. Kember, S. Candlin & L. Yan (Eds.), Further case studies of improving teaching and learning from the action learning project (175-190). Hong Kong: Action Learning Project.

Banton, A. (1992). Successful self access through learner development. Independence, 8, 20-22.

Barbosa, I. & Paiva, M. (2002). Action research: a way to teacher and learner autonomy? In F. Vieira, M. A. Moreira, I. Barbosa & M. Paiva (Eds.), Pedagogy for autonomy and English learning: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the working group – Pedagogy for autonomy. Braga: University of Minho.

Barbot, M. J. (1997). Cap sur l’autoformation: multimédias, des outils à s’approprier. Le Français dans le Monde, July, 54-62.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Researching beliefs about SLA: A critical review. In P. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (7-34). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Teachers’ and students’ beliefs within a Deweyan framework: Conflict and influence. In P. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (171-200). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Barfield, A. (2002). Restrictions into resources: Learner autonomy and the literature review. In A. S. Mackenzie & E. McCafferty (Eds.), Developing autonomy. Proceedings of the JALT CUE Conference 2001 (pp. 137-146). Tokyo: The Japan Association for Language Teaching College and University Educators Special Interest Group.

Barfield, A. (2003). Routine reflections on developing autonomy? In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy you ask!. Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.

Barfield, A. & Brown, S.H. (2007). Reconstructing Autonomy in Language Education: Inquiry and Innovation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Barfield, A. & Smith, R.C. (1999). Teacher-learner autonomy: the role of conference and workshop. designProceedings of Teachers Develop Teachers Research (TDTR) 4 (CD-ROM). Whitstable, Kent: IATEFL..
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Barfield, A. & Nix, M. (2003). Learner and teacher autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy you ask!. Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.

http://www.encounters.jp/mike/professional/publications/tchauto.html
Barfield, A., Ashwell, T., Carroll, M., Collins, K., Cowie, N., Critchley, M., Head, E., Nix, M., Obermeier, A. & Robertson, M.C. (2002). Exploring and defining teacher autonomy: A collaborative discussion. In A. S. Mackenzie & E. McCafferty (Eds.), Developing autonomy. Proceedings of the JALT CUE Conference 2001 (pp. 217-222). Tokyo: The Japan Association for Language Teaching College and University Educators Special Interest Group.

Barkhuizen, G. P. (1998). Discovering learners’ perceptions of ESL classroom teaching/learning activities in a South African context. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 85-108.

Barlow, N. W. (1994). Comments from an adult language learner. In E. Esch (Ed.), Self-access and the adult language learner (p. 165). London: CILT.

Barnard, R. & Li, J. (2016). Language learner autonomy: Teachers’ beliefs and practices in East Asian contexts. (pp. 150-166). Phnom Penh, Cambodia: IDP Education Cambodia.

Barnes, D. (1976). From communication to curriculum. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Barnett, L. & Jordan, G. (1991). Self-access facilities: What are they for? ELT Journal, 45(4), 305-312.

Barraja-Rohan, A. M. (2015). I told you\’: Storytelling development of a Japanese learning English as a Second Language. In T. Cadierno & S.W. Eskildsen (eds) (Eds.), Usage-based Perspectives on Second Language Learning (271-304). : Mouton de Gruyter.

Barrett-Lennard, S. (1997). Encouraging autonomy and preparing for IELTS: Mutually exclusive goals? Prospect, 12(3), 29-40.

Bartle, J. (2001). Perceptions of the role and functions of the language adviser. In M. Mozzon-McPherson & R. Vismans (Eds.), Beyond language teaching: Towards language advising (84-92). London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

Barton, A. & Downes, P. (2003). Differentiation and gender: Boys and language learning. In M. Jiménez Raya & T. Lamb (Eds.), Differentiation in the modern languages classroom. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Basil, H. (1985). The role of counselling in self-directed learning. In R. J. Mason (Eds.), Self-directed learning and Self-access in Australia: From practice to theory (93-102). Proceedings of the National Conference of the Adult Migrant Education Programme, Melbourne, June 1984. Melbourne: Council of Adult Education.

Basturkmen, H. (2012). Review of research into the correspondence between language teachers’ stated beliefs and practices. System, 40(2), 282-295.

Baumann, U. (2006). Developing autonomy and intercultural competence in a distance learning environment. In D. Gardner (Ed.), Learner autonomy 10: Integration and support (93-113). Dublin: Authentik.

Bavendick, U. (2001). Three approaches to promoting independence in language learning in higher education. In M. Mozzon-McPherson & R. Vismans (Eds.), Beyond language teaching: Towards language advising (125-132). London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

Bawden, R. (1988). On leadership, change and autonomy. In D. Boud (Ed.), Developing student autonomy in learning (2nd ed.) (pp. 227-241). London: Kogan Page.

Beeching, K. (1996). Evaluating a Self-study system. In E. Broady & M. M. Kenning (Eds.), Promoting learner autonomy in university language teaching (81-104). London: Association for French Language Studies/CILT.

Bella-Dora, D. & Blanchard, L. J. (1979). Moving toward self-directed learning: Highlights of relevant research and of promising practices. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Bellingham, L. (2005). Is there language acquisition after 40? Older learners speak up. In P. Benson & D. Nunan (Eds.), Learners’ stories: Difference and diversity in language learning (56-68). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bennett, L. (1993). Teacher off: Computer technology, guidance and self-access. System, 21(3), 295-304.

Benson, P. (1992). Self-access for self-directed learning. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics & Language Teaching, 15, 31-38.

Benson, P. (1994). Self-access systems as information systems: Questions of ideology and control. In D. Gardner & L. Miller (Eds.), Directions in self-access language learning (3-12). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Benson, P. (1995). A critical view of learner training. Learning Learning: JALT Learner Development N-SIG Forum, 2(2), 2-6.
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Benson, P. (1995). Self-access and collaborative learning. Independence, 0.
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Benson, P. (1996). Concepts of autonomy in language learning. In R. Pemberton, et al (Ed.), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (27-34). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Benson, P. (1997). The multiple meanings of autonomy: Responsibility, ability and right. In L. Dickinson (Ed.), Autonomy 2000: The development of learning independence in language learning. Conference Proceedings. Bangkok: King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Thonburi.

Benson, P. (1997). The philosophy and politics of learner autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independence in language learning (18-34). London: Longman.

Benson, P. (1997). The semiotics of self-access language learning in the digital age. In V. Darleguy, et al. (Eds.), Educational technology in language learning: Theoretical considerations and practical applications (70-78). Lyon: INSA (National Institute of Applied Sciences).

Benson, P. (2000). Autonomy as a learners’ and teachers’ right. In B. Sinclair, et al (Ed.), Learner autonomy. teacher autonomy: Future directions (pp. 111-117). London: Longman.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London: Longman.

Benson, P. (2002). Autonomy and communication. In P. Benson & S. Toogood (Eds.), Learner autonomy 7: Challenges to research and practice (10-28). Dublin: Authentik.

Benson, P. (2002). Rethinking the relationship of self-access and autonomy. Newsletter of the Hong Kong Association for Self-Access Learning and Development, 5, 4-10.
http://lc.ust.hk/HASALD/newsletter/newsletterSept02.pdf

Benson, P. (2003). A Bacardi by the pool. In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy in Japan 1: Autonomy you ask!. Tokyo: Learner Development Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers.

Benson, P. (2003). Learner autonomy in the classroom. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Practical English language teaching (289-308). New York: McGraw Hill.

Benson, P. (2004). Autonomy and information technology in the educational discourse of the information age. In C. Davison (Ed.), Information technology and innovation in language educatio (173-192). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Benson, P. (2005). (Auto)biography and learner diversity. In P. Benson & D. Nunan (Eds.), Learners’ stories: Difference and diversity in language learning (4-21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benson, P. (2006). Autonomy and its role in learning. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), The international handbook of English language teaching (Vol. 2). Norwell, MA: Springer.

Benson, P. (2006). Learner autonomy 8: Insider perspectives on autonomy in language teaching and learning. Dublin: Authentik.

Benson, P. (2006). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40, 21-40.
doi:10.1017/S0261444806003958

Benson, P. (2007). Teachers’ and learners’ perspectives on autonomy. In T. E. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities and responses. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. State of the Art Article. Language Teaching, 40(1).

Benson, P. (2009). Mapping out the world of languag e learning beyond the classroom. In F. Kjisik, P. Voller, N. Aoki & Y. Nakata (Eds.), Mapping the Terrain of Learner Autonomy: Learning Environments, Learning Communities and Identities (217-235). Tampere: Tampere University Press.

Benson, P. (2009). Mapping out the world of language learning beyond the classroom. In P. Voller, N. Aoki, & Y. Nakata (Eds.), Mapping the terrain of learner autonomy: Learning environments, learning communities and identities (217-235). Tampere: Tampere University Press.

Benson, P. (2010). Measuring autonomy: Should we put our ability to the test. In A. Paran & L. Sercu. (Eds.), Testing the untestable in language education (77-97). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Benson, P. (2011). Language learning and teaching b eyond the classroom: An introduction to the field. In P. Benson & H. Reinde rs (Eds.), Beyond the Language Classroom (7-16). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benson, P. (20111). What’s new in autonomy. The Language Teacher, 35(4), 15-18.

Benson, P. & Reinders, H. (2011). Beyond the Language Classroom. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benson, P. & Huang, J. (2006). Autonomy in language learning: A thematic bibliography. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Supporting independent learning: Issues and interventions. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

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Language learning and library learning in universities are closely related endeavors that intersect at various times, in various locations, and with various teachers and learners. This book is an examination of how these intersections are experienced by second and foreign language learners. Its aim is to explore the two types of learning to help sustain and develop the learning in both areas. Considerations of the intersections are placed within a theoretical framework of learner autonomy. This framework offers librarians and language instructors methods and practices that enable learners to take control of both their library learning and their language learning.

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Boyer, N., & Maher, P. (2005). From Spoon-Fed to Student-Led: Fostering an Atmosphere for Web-Based Transformative Learning. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 2(2), 66-80.

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http://sosyalbilimler.cukurova.edu.tr/tez/1628/learner%20autonomy
Please feel free to contact the author at boyno.m@hotmail.com .

Boyno, M. (2012). Some pedagogical innovations in nurturing autonomous EFL learners. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 4, 197-204.
http://www.silascience.com/abstracts/03052013213735.html
Please feel free to contact the author at boyno.m@hotmail.com .

Boyno, M. & Course, S. (2011). Learner autonomy in the Turkish context: a conversation. Independence (53), Newsletter of the IATEFL LA SIG. Canterbury: IATEFL.
Please feel free to contact the authors at boyno.m@hotmail.com .

Boyno, M., Akil, E. & Dolas, F. (2011). Difficulties of classroom-based advising. IATEFL LASIG Event. Chiba:
http://advising2011.wordpress.com/2011/10/09/difficulties-of-classroom-based-advising-talk-t2/
Please feel free to contact the authors at boyno.m@hotmail.com .

Boyno, M., Dolas, F. & Akil, E. (2012). Learners’ voices on learner autonomy in assessment. IATEFL TEASIG event. Prague:
http://tea.iatefl.org/Prague2012/Learners%20voices%20on%20learner%20autonomy-Boyno,%20Akil%20&%20Dolas.pdf
Please feel free to contact the authors at boyno.m@hotmail.com

Boyno, M., Jiménez Raya, M. & Reyes Fierro, M. del C. (2013). Towards pedagogy for autonomy in adverse settings: Navigating the space of possibility. In Barfield, A. & Delgado Alvarado, N. (Eds.), Autonomy in language learning: Stories of Practices (33-43). Canterbury: IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG.
https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/311760
Please feel free to contact the authors at boyno.m@hotmail.com .

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http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/ssb22/papers/hcii.pdf
note: the “gradint” program referred to in the paper has been developed further and is available at http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/ssb22/gradint/

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Bárbara, N. (2007). Autonomy in ESP: Solution or Recipe? In Gálova, D. (Ed.), Languages for specific Purposes in Higher Education – Searching for Common Solutions (18-31). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publisher.
Within the framework of the Bologna Process implementation, the Portuguese Higher Education institutions are re-designing their courses aiming at a new teaching paradigm pushing towards autonomy, student-centred learning and innovation. The ensuing reduction of ESP contact hours will bear a cost in human resources needed and will also further the imbalance between breadth and depth of the English language teaching. Searching for feasible solutions, the Languages and Communication Sector of our Agricultural College will depend on a pedagogy for autonomy based on a threefold method, namely – classes, e-learning and tutorials – building self-tailored syllabuses for heterogeneous classes of engineering courses.

Bárbara, N. (2008). Do it Yourself: Uma Metodologia para Autonomia. In Ribeiro, M. et al. (Eds.), Aprender Ensinando. Dinâmicas Metodológicas no Ensino-Aprendizagem das Línguas Estrangeiras (149-160). Guarda: Arthipol.

Bárbara, N. (2009). Language Portfolios in Engineering Courses: A Strategy Towards Autonomy’. Proceedings of the Independent Learning Association 2007 Japan Conference: Exploring theory, enhancing practice: Autonomy across the disciplines, 0.
http://independentlearning.org/ILA/ila07/files/ILA2007_004.pdf
Within the framework of the Bologna Process implementation, the Portuguese Higher Education institutions are re-designing their courses aiming at a new teaching paradigm pushing towards autonomy, student-centred learning and innovation. New classroom goals and curricula entail new forms of assessment – portfolios in higher education represent a move from traditional forms of assessment to a more authentic and holistic assessment that reflects student learning, achievement, motivation and attitudes. At its core lie self-assessment and the students’ direct involvement in learning. The alignments of assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy through the use of portfolios are reflected in new education policies in Europe.

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The main goal of this study was to analyse the development of a pedagogy for autonomy tuned to the current situation in which Higher Education finds itself, namely of implementation of the Bologna Process in Europe, and in particular at the Escola Superior Agrária of the Polytechnic School at Coimbra. For this purpose new course units were created, new descriptors written, new materials developed and new methodologies tried. A case study was undertaken to observe and analyse the changes the institution was undergoing and to assess the impact of the new methodologies, particularly regarding the development of student autonomy.

Bárbara, N. ,Ferreira, A. & Lopes, M., (2007). Preparing Professionals for the future. In Search of a New Educational Paradigm. In Pardal,L. et al. (Eds.), Educação e Trabalho. Representações Sociais, Competências e Trajectórias Profissionais (213-231). Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro.

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Learner Autonomy has been a buzz word in foreign language education in the past decades, especially in relation to lifelong learning skills. It has transformed old practices in the language classroom and has given origin to self access language learning centers around the world such as the SALC at Kanda University of International Studies in Japan, the ASLLC at The Hong Kong Institute of Education, the SAC at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and ELSAC at the University of Auckland[1]. As the result of such practices, language teaching is now sometimes seen as the same as language learning, and it has placed the learner in the centre of attention in language learning education in some places.[1]

There is a comprehensive bibliography for learner autonomy.[2]

Definition[edit]

The term "learner autonomy" was first coined in 1981 by Henri Holec, the "father" of learner autonomy. Many definitions have since been given to the term, depending on the writer, the context, and the level of debate educators have come to. It has been considered as a personal human trait, as a political measure, or as an educational move. This is because autonomy is seen either (or both) as a means or as an end in education.

Some of the most well known definitions in present literature are:[3][4]

  • "Autonomy is the ability to take charge of one's own learning." (Henri Holec [5])
  • "In order to help learners to assume greater control over their own learning it is important to help them to become aware of and identify the strategies that they already use or could potentially use." (Holmes & Ramos, 1991, cited in James & Garrett, 1991: 198).[6]
  • "Autonomy is essentially a matter of the learner's psychological relation to the process and content of learning." (David Little)
  • "Autonomy is a situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all the decisions concerned with his [or her] learning and the implementation of those decisions." (Leslie Dickinson)
  • "Autonomy is a recognition of the rights of learners within educational systems." (Phil Benson)

One of the key aspects to consider in defining Learner Autonomy is whether we view it as a means to an end (learning a foreign language) or as an end in itself (making people autonomous learners). These two options do not exclude each other, both of them can be part of our views towards language learning or learning in general.

Different methods of learning need to be applied to each individual in order to successfully learn autonomously. One must discover their personality types and find out which learning style suits best. One method in which to do this is to take a personality test such as the MBTI Personality Test.[7]

Learner autonomy is very useful in learning a new language. It is much more beneficial to learn a language by being exposed to it in comparison to learning patterns of different tenses. According to neo-Vygotskian psychology, which supports the idea of autonomous learning, the development of a students learning skills is never entirely separable from the content of their learning, seeing as learning a new language is quite different to learning any other subject. It is important that the students discover the language for themselves, with only a little guidance from their teacher so that they can fully understand it.

Independence, autonomy and the ability to control learning experiences has come to play an increasingly important role in language education.[8]

Principles of learner autonomy could be:(Frank Lacey)

  • Autonomy means moving the focus from teaching to learning.
  • Autonomy affords maximum possible influence to the learners.
  • Autonomy encourages and needs peer support and cooperation.
  • Autonomy means making use of self/peer assessment.
  • Autonomy requires and ensures 100% differentiation.
  • Autonomy can only be practised with student logbooks which are a documentation of learning and a tool of reflection.
  • The role of the teacher as supporting scaffolding and creating room for the development of autonomy is very demanding and very important.
  • Autonomy means empowering students, yet the classroom can be restrictive, so are the rules of chess or tennis, but the use of technology can take students outside of the structures of the classroom, and the students can take the outside world into the classroom.

For an introduction to learner autonomy, see Reinders (2010) [9]

Educational assessment[edit]

There have been numerous studies relating the conative factors associated with autonomous learning.[10][11] The salient characteristics associated with autonomous learning (resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence) are crucial for high school-level students. Currently, the school structure in place in the US is composed of a ladder system of advancement as directed solely by academic achievement. As students proceed up the ladder, they are exposed to ever greater needs for learner autonomy. This increase in learner autonomy does not have a linear incremental increase throughout the 13 grades (from K-12), but shows a dramatic increase in the transition from middle (or junior high) school to high school. Studies suggest that students taught methods for autonomous learning have a greater probability of succeeding in a high school setting. Further, students screened for their level of autonomous learning perform better than those advanced simply on scholarly achievement [12]

An instrument for assessing learner autonomy may play a significant role in determining a student’s readiness for high school.[13] Such an instrument now exists that is appropriate for the adolescent learner. This instrument is suitable for assessing suitability for greater learner autonomy; a quality that should be present in high school students.

Characteristics of the autonomous learner[edit]

According to Philip C. Candy,[14] there are over 100 competencies associated with autonomy in learning. Candy (1991) states that autonomous learners are;[15]

  • methodical/disciplined
  • logical/analytical
  • reflective/self-aware
  • motivated/curious
  • flexible
  • interdependent/inter-personally competent
  • responsible/persistent
  • venturesome/creative
  • creative/have positive self-concept
  • independent/self-sufficient
  • skilled in seeking/retrieving information
  • knowledgeable about/skilled in learning
  • able to develop/use evaluation criteria

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Promoting Learner Autonomy, a research project by the HKIEd; http://www.learner-autonomy.org
  2. ^Bibliography, Autonomy (2013). "Learner Autonomy Bibliography". 
  3. ^D. Garner & L. Miller (2011) Managing Self-assess Language Learning: Principles and Practice, System 39(1): 78–89
  4. ^Leni Dam (1995) Autonomy from Theory to Classroom Practice, Dublin: Authentik
  5. ^Holec, Henri (1981) Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning, Oxford: Pergamon Press
  6. ^Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2000). "What Is Learner Autonomy And How Can It Be Fostered?". The Internet TESL Journal. VI: 1. 
  7. ^"Maynooth University Moodle 2016-17: Log in to the site"(PDF). 2017.moodle.maynoothuniversity.ie. Retrieved 2016-11-22. 
  8. ^Hurd, Lewis (2008). Language learning strategies in independent settings. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. p. 3. 
  9. ^Reinders, Hayo (2010). "Learner Autonomy FAQ". 
  10. ^Reeve, J., Bolt, E., & Cai, Y. (1999) "Autonomy-supportive teachers: How they teach and motivate students", Journal of Educational Psychology 91(3), 537-548
  11. ^Murdock, T. B., Anderman, L. H., & Hodge, S. A. (2000) "Middle-grade predictors of students’ motivation and behavior in high school", Journal of Adolescent Research 15(3), 327-351
  12. ^Doug Dillner (2005) Dissertation from Regent University
  13. ^The Autonomy Project at the Hong Kong Institute of Education
  14. ^Philip C. Candy (1991) Self-direction for Lifelong Learning, pages 459 to 66, Jossey-Bass at Google Books
  15. ^Benson, Phil (2001). Teaching and Researching: Autonomy in Language Learning. Harlow; Longman. p. 117. 

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